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Bloom’s Taxonomy of Levels of Learning

Benjamin Bloom created the following taxonomy for categorizing levels of learning or skill and attitude development that normally occur in educational settings. The table provides an explanation of each level. It also provides guidelines on the types of action verbs that are appropriate for each level of learning. When writing learning outcomes for entry level students, Knowledge and Comprehension are the most frequently used levels of learning. When evaluating more advanced students (graduating seniors), learning outcomes should be written at the Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation levels of learning.


•observation and recall
•knowledge of dates,
•knowledge of major
•mastery of subject matter
•Action Verbs: list, define, tell, describe,collect, examine, tabulate,when, where, etc.


understanding information
•grasp meaning
•translate knowledge
•interpret facts, compare,
•order, group, infer
•predict consequences
•Action Verbs: summarize, describe,associate, distinguish,discuss, extend


•use information
•use methods, concepts, theories in new situations
•solve problems using required skills or knowledge
•Action Verbs: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, classify, discover




•use old ideas to create new ones
•generalize from given facts
•relate knowledge from several areas
•predict, draw conclusions
•Action Verbs: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite


•compare and discriminate between ideas
•assess value of theories, presentations
•make choices based on reasoned argument
•verify value of evidence
•recognize subjectivity
•Action Verbs: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize

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